Essay: Tugas 3


1. What do you know about varieties of language?

2. Referring to Clifford Geertz’s Linguistic Etiquette, explain how Javanese people use their language speech levels!

3. What is meant by register?. Give some examples of registers in different fields of sciences

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Note: i have done my Assignment 3 already


  1. what is meant by a variety of a language?. Wardhaugh define it as “a specific set of linguistic items” or “human speech patterns (sounds, words, grammatical features) which can be associated with some external factor (geographical area or a social group) (Wardhaugh, 1986: 22). A language itself can be viewed as a variety of the human languages.
  2. In this relation, Clifford Geertz discusses in the frame of linguistic etiquette. As stated before, in Javanese language we recognize the complicated speech levels. By speech levels are language varieties in which the differences from one to another are determined by the differences of etiquette existing in a speaker and his listener. Those speech levels are ngoko, krama madya, and krama inggil (Geertz, 1960).
  3. register is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting. For example, when speaking in a formal setting, an English speaker may be more likely to use features of prescribed grammar than in an informal setting—such as pronouncing words ending in -ing with a velar nasal instead of an alveolar nasal(e.g. “walking”, not “walkin'”), choosing more formal words (e.g. father vs. dad, child vs. kid, etc.), and refraining from using words considered nonstandard, such as ain’t.

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